Waters, M (1995) Globalization, London: Routledge

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3 definition A social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding. Appears to justify spread of western culture. Bound up with spread of European culture by settlement, colonisation and cultural mimesis, and with pattern of capitalist development. But does not imply westernisation and capitalisation of everything, just that each set of social arrangements must establish its position in relation to capitalist west.

4 Issue of when it began. Arguably *could* not begin till Copernicus, so essentially linked to modernisation.

Early sociology identified that industrialisation tended to weaken collective ties and open way for dismantling boundaries between societies. Durkheim differentiation, Weber rationalisation. Weber noticed reduction in commitment to patriotism and duty. not so sure about patriotic but did not notice also implied homogenisation of cultures. Marx most explicitly committed to idea of globalisation, saw capitalism as opening up world markets - cultural as well as economic because giving cosmopolitan character to consumption as well as production. 6 but within this recognises continuing existence of nation-state.

7 Three arenas of social life - economy, polity, culture. Waters follows Weber in assuming these three to be structurally independent. Relative effectivity varies in time and space. Material exchanges tend to localise, political to internationalise, cultural to globalise.

Ch 2: Sociological observations - precursors to globalisation

Industrialisation :- differentiation - individualism, universalism, secularity, rationalisation. Differentiation forces integration (Durkheim) i.e. differentiated social units rely more on each other. Also value system becomes universalised and abstract.

15 Parsons - universals associated with modern societies - bureaucratic organisation, money and markets, universalistic legal system, democratic association.

15/16 Levy develops this showing latecomer modernisation is reflexive - it reacts to early modernisers. 17 then others suggested societies would become similar.

18 bell forecast post-industrial society less tied geographically and with nation-states disappearing.

23-5 Wallerstein thinks in terms of world-systems, in which states are crucial and economics key moving feature.

29 Rosenau foresees transformation, even breakdown, of nation-state system, but one in which nation-states remain central actors.

33 Waters criticises these various accounts as admitting possibility of world economic system but being unwilling to admit possibility of ultimate disintegration of nation-state and national cultures.

34-6 McLuhan - to whom Giddens owes great debt.

Ch 3: Recent theories

39 Robertson rejected prevailing commitment to secularisation as central social process, got interested in development of Islamic fundamentalism.

39-40 Parsons' AGIL argument - and links to economic, political, community and cultural activities. Nettl and Robertson suggest development of international system of states can only go as far as cultural system will allow, and that is limited by three cleavages: religious, legal-diplomatic, and industrial.

41 Robertson's definition globalisation as a concept refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole.... both concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century.

45 particular feature is reflexivity - people set out to apprehend the world as one place. 45-6 carefully says globalisation does not make world more integrated or harmonious place, but does make it more unified and systematic. Accelerated globalisation; need new concepts to analyse it; process is fundamentally cultural and reflexive; follows own inexorable logic. Looking at religions - does not deny particularities of individual religions, but does insist on relativisation - globalisation forces them to respond to each other's claims.

46-7 Giddens general critique of Marxist view that economics determines everything in modern history - says determined also by development of nation-state. 4 characteristics of modern nation-state:

Time-space distanciation - lifting social relations out of local context, etc. Depends on symbolic tokens and expert systems. Each implies trust. Modernity involves both high risk and high trust. Because of the risk, people are constantly monitoring e.g. flow of money, so society becomes reflexive. Giddens sees globalisation as direct consequence of modernity (unlike Robertson) - because of time-space distanciation, disembedding and reflexivity. Local transformations become part of global so e.g. new nationalisms are not counter-globalising but are part of it.

52 Lash and Urry move from organised capitalism to disorganised capitalism. Speed of flows invade culture - becomes postmodern. Cognitive signs and aesthetic signs proliferate - promoting reflexive accumulation. Insofar as these flows undermine nation-state, we have globalisation.

Harvey connects time-space distanciation and globalisation to postmodernism.

Beck most advanced economies have moved past scarcity. Modernisation - people prepared to accept medical and ecological side effects for increase in welfare. Now risk is becoming central factor of affluent society. 60 risk inherently globalises - universalises and equalises. 61 ecology threatening change e.g power stations - property prices fall - ecological expropriation. But class disadvantage can still lead to ecological disadvantage - e.g. pollution dumping.

62 Beck The multiplication of risks causes the world society to contract into a community of danger.

Ch 4: Economy

Core societies highly value added, periphery low value added in colonialised, part globalised world. Globalisation muddies the distinction.

89 labour markets least globalised. Earliest stages of global expansion saw biggest movement - mostly slaves and convicts, then migrants ex Europe. 1845-1914 45 million left for Americas.

Ch 5: Political globalisation

97 Held foresees process that completely undermines nation-state. Debate about how, but it will actually happen.

102 challenges to current power of nation-state - human rights, environment, development and inequality, peace and order.

111 social problems redefined as global - redirects individual political preferences; delegitimates nation-state as problem solver; sets up new organisations which take over some elements of state sovereignty.

Fukuyama and Huntington make case for single political culture and suggest that as governments share more ideological commitments they will be more willing to see state sovereignty aggregated or decentralised. 121 they perhaps underestimate cultural variations between liberal democracies.

122 if states survive globalisation, it cannot be the force it appears to be.

Ch 6: Cultural globalisation

125 universalising religions e.g. Christianity, Islam, have to face each other they have done for a long time, haven't they and also universalising values of liberal democracy and capitalism.

125/6 globalisation does not mean trumph of one system. Is chaotic rather than orderly. Integrates and connects so all components are relativised to each other, but not unified or centralised. Continuous flow of ideas, information, etc.

Featherstone argues flows give distinctive shape a) link previously encapsulated cultures and relativise them, b) allow for development of transnational culture. 126 Appadurai identifies "-scapes": ethnoscape, technoscape, finanscape, mediascape, ideoscape. Waters suggests "sacriscape".

Development of Christianity - use of Greek and alignment with Roman imperial dynasty. Ceased to be purely cultural movement and became more like a political ideology e.g suggesting social order was ordained by God etc.

128 Reformation specified church subordinate to state, and asserted universal direct relationship to God. Also 129 (Beyer) challenged spatial constraints, was previously possible to think of believers as territorially distinct.

129 Secularisation thesis. Challenged by halt/reverse in decline and revitalisation of old universal religions - some of these developments modern and globalised. so maybe Wilson just didn't take globalisation sufficiently into account.

130 fundamentalist religions and ethnic movements respond to hyperdifferentiating tendencies of postmodernisation. Lechner a value oriented, antimodern, dedifferentiating form of collective action - a sociocultural movement aimed at reorganising all spheres of life in terms of a particular set of absolute values. Globalisation contributes by carrying discontents of modernism to previously untouched religions and cultures. Lechner notes also direct effects e.g. universalisation of western values.

131 another option ecumenism which itself provokes a traditionalist backlash. One of most important new christian right in USA. 132 best example rise of fundamentalist Islam from 1970s on. 132 Note also Soka Gakkai

Ethnicity - Hobsbawm suggest nation-state unleashed forces of nationalism by harnessing it to state power. Globalisation pluralises world - essentially differentiating as well as homogenising, weakens nation-state nexus, brings centre to periphery and periphery to centre.

137 Hall identifies two responses - translation (syncretistic development of new forms) and tradition (ethnic fundamentalism). Example of translation rise of word "black" in 1960s and 70s.

Consumer culture - liberates values and preferences from particular social and geographical location. 142 note Robertson's view that globalisation precedes modernisation and cultural globalisation was begun by elites in C19 - grand tour etc.

143 Ritzer sees consumer culture as extension of Weber's rationalisation.

152 tourism - distant visual experience as opposed to cultural immersion.